Writing a Bibliography: APA Format-standard formats and examples

Here are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA). To learn more about the APA format, see http://www.apastyle.org.

Your list of works cited must start at the end of the paper on a page that is new the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author’s last name, using the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Just the initials regarding the first and names that are middle given. An, or The if the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A.

For dates, spell out the names of months within the text of your paper, but abbreviate them within the set of works cited, with the exception of May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and be consistent. Utilizing the style that is month-day-year make sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.

Underlining or Italics?

When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined since most typewriters had not a way to print italics. You should still underline the names of publications if you write a bibliography by hand. But, if you use a computer, then publication names ought to be in italics as they are below. Always check along with your instructor regarding their preference of employing italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.

Hanging Indentation

All APA citations should use hanging indents, this is certainly, the very first type of an entry should be flush left, and the second and subsequent lines ought to be indented 1/2″.

Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation

The APA guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, so you should http://www.payforpapers.net/ capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to the rule could be periodical titles and proper names in a title which should nevertheless be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and it is followed by the quantity number which, because of the title, is also italicized.

If you have one or more author, use an ampersand (&) prior to the name of the last author. If there are more than six authors, list just the first one and use et al. for the rest.

Place the date of publication in parentheses right after the name for the author. Place a period of time after the closing parenthesis. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes round the titles of shorter works within longer works.

Format Examples

Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of United States. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.

Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a reputation for the heroes associated with the imagination. New York: Random House.

Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: a guide that is practical creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.

Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.

Encyclopedia & Dictionary

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In the encyclopedia that is new (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.

Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.

Magazine & Newspaper Articles

Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.

Note: Do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period of time following the title. Then supply the page range (in regular type) without “pp. if a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and” If the periodical does not use volume numbers, as in newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in the current schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

Kalette, D. (1986, 21) july. California town counts town to big quake. USA Today, 9, p. A1.

Kanfer, S. (1986, 21) july. Heard any books that are good? Time, 113, 71-72.

Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.

Website or Webpage

Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL

Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the precise document that is website. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) immediately after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that goes to another line after a slash or before a period of time. Continually look at your references to online documents. There’s no period following a URL. Note: If you cannot find a number of this given information, cite what is present.

Devitt, T. (2001, 2) august. Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html january

Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom among us. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved June 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html

Note: If a document is contained within a big and complex website (such as for instance that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization and also the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.